HR question: Using Exhibit 2.5 from the textbook, Staffing

HR question: Using Exhibit 2.5 from the textbook, Staffing Organizations, eighth edition, examine the disparate impact statistics (flow statistics, stock statistics, and concentration statistics) and respond to the following questions: What guidelines would you recommend for deciding whether statistical differences between men and women, or nonminorities and minorities, reflects discrimination occurring throughout an organization’s staffing system?
What types of staffing activities (recruitment, selection, and employment) might cause the statistical differences? For example, in the table, the selection rate for men is 50% and for women is 11%. How would the organization collect the data necessary to compute the selection rates, how would you decide if the difference in selection rates (50% versus 11%) is big enough to indicate possible discrimination, and what sorts of practices might cause the difference in selection rates?