Paraphrasing : Grammer check, thesis statement…

Last month, January 20th, thousands of people gathered for the second annual Women’s March Los Angeles. The march was attended by feminists, people with different sexual orientations, and various ethnic groups. Participants carried bright signs with what they stand for. The main topic was equality. A bunch of the signs were provocative and many of them even offensive toward men. Nevertheless, by-passers smiled and took pictures in front of signs with rude statements. I felt a sense of shame that the men who came to this march in support of women's rights read these insulting messages addressed to them. Looking at these signs the question arises whether feminism could be a positive movement that upholds equality for everyone without destructive aggression that corrupts culture, social norms, and creates new double standards.
Men and women should have equal rights and freedoms—just as the same rights should be for people with different skin color. The presence or absence of some body parts or physical abilities does not make one of the sexes better, does not give their owners automatically more privileges and does not mean, for example, that they must make decisions in the family or receive more money with the same professional qualifications.Thegoals of feminismare to give women the opportunity to choose their own life scenario and have the conditions for its implementation on an even playing field. The suffrage, higher education, the ability to control the birth of children, the right to work and own real estate, to engage in politics or football, to occupy managerial positions, this is what women can now do, it is the result of their struggle for their rights.Nevertheless, many people do not support the feminist movement,even if they support the idea of equality, because of its aggression toward men.
“A national survey by the Washington Post and Kaiser Family Foundation finds 6 in 10 women and one-third of men call themselves a feminist or strong feminist, with roughly 7 in 10 of each saying the movement is empowering. Yet over 4 in 10 Americans see the movement as angry, and a similar portion say it unfairly blames men for women's challenges” (The Washington Post). The Women’s March has clear evidence that feminism carries level of aggression into society. For instance, a sign “Shut up. I wear heels bigger than your dick” was not the only one sign there that humiliated men’s body and was welcome on this march. Such statements could be considered as sexism towards men. This does not bring a positive community message. It looks like some ‘feminists’ are fighting for the right to use obscene vocabulary and joke about the male genital organs as it does some ignorant men. At the same time, “Vagina jokes are never funny, period.” is a slogan that indicates jokes about female genitalia are offensive and not acceptable in society. Regardless of gender, feminists call to respect the female body and mind, and gender equality in all aspects of life. However, since both signs caused a positive reaction in society, this indicates a “double standard” to what is considered by feminists to be equal.
The phrase "double standard" in itself suggests no justice for one of the parties.Accordingly, this part suffers to some extent. Women suffer a lot because of past and current double standards. Usually the “double standard” correlates with the manifestation of sexuality in men and women in both adolescence and adults. Thus, feelings and behaviors considered acceptable for men are often considered unacceptable or unsuitable for women. If women have many sexual partners, this is perceived negatively by society and likely to be judge “slutty”. However, if men have many sexual partners, society consider it behavior in more positive way and use the word “player” (Sociology). This double standard brings a lot of negatively to women's lives. Women limit themselves in sexual intercourse and feel the pressure of society.
Moreover, “double standard” includes that women are perceived as an object. Common clichés such as “women are beautiful and weak, while men are smart and strong” are well-known. Feminists fight against it because these clichés create pressure for female psychology and limit job opportunities and personal development (Adele K. Rideout). Shifting from an “object” perspective to an “individual” with an equal brain ability is fundamental key of developed society. Even if women are well educated and have experience and skills, they still earn less and are in a position lower than men with the same background. Since the late 1970s, there has been significant increase in relative earnings of women. Nowadays, women earn about 80 percentage of the what men earn(Stanford).According to a CNNMoney analysis, only 14.2 percentage of the top five leadership positions at the companies in the S&P 500 are held by women.In politics, women also take an unequal position. Less than 20 percentage of women in the U.S. Congress and House of Representatives and 22 in the U.S. Senate (Rutgers).In the history of the United States, a woman never became a president. This situation should not be acceptable in a developed society, and people should continue to fight against it. However, while fighting, feminists created other “double standard” while photographing with offensive signs and posting dirty jokes about men ability and body. Sexism is shown by those who write posters, and those who smile, and those who repost on social media. Mathematics teaches us that two negatives make a positive. Nevertheless, this is very doubtful that two sexisms make an equality.
The women’s liberation movementhas always beenboisterous, grouchy, and belligerent in different degree.Why did it happen? What was the reason of women’s aggression? It might be hard to understand the extent of women’s oppressionin a recent past.Every day millions of women are subjected to domestic violence around the world. Until 1993, rape in marriage was legalin the U.S.(National Criminal Justice Reference Service).And in Britain until the early 1970s, women were not supposed to be in the hotel bar alone, otherwise they were considered prostitutes.In political and economic aspects, women were also humiliated. Women were more like servants with limited rights and almost unlimited duties. All these reasons served to form feminist organizations and combative behavior of women.
In the middle of the XIX century, the women's liberation movement takes absolutely distinct organized forms in the United States and in the numbers of European and Scandinavian countries as well. The feminist movement of the 1840s—1920s is the First Wave of feminism. A large number of women and their supporters rose to fight for changing legislation and improving the social status of women. The main task of the First Wave is to struggle for the political and economic rights of women, namely for the opportunity to elect and be elected, property rights in marriage, since at that time a married woman in America and England had no formal rights not only to her dowry, but also to her personal money earned. Also, feminists advocated equality in marriage, opportunities for education and choice of profession.The process had both positive and negative sides. On the one hand, massive women's labor contributed to the growth of women's self-awareness as an autonomous social group, creating the opportunity to destroy the traditional hierarchy of the sexes. On the other hand, this led to the overexploitation of women, as they continued to fulfill their duties as mother, wife, mistress of the house. At the same time, the working day was too long, and the wages of women were less than those of men who did the same in the same enterprise. The employers justified this by saying that women did not have to support their families.In addition, women were not accepted into trade unions (Brayson). All these factors provided grounds for women to gathered together and created of women's organizations defending the interests and rights of women.
At the beginning of its existence, the First Wave recognized the struggle only by liberal methods. Feminists published many pamphlets, filed petitions, held large marches. At that time, some men also set up their own organizations in support of women's political rights.In England, the government postponed the adoption of the law on the right of women to participate in local and parliamentary elections. Many of the women’s liberation movementmembers were disappointed.As a result, the First Wave split into liberal and radical feminists. The last one adhered to the tactics of civil disobedience.Feminists began to organize marches, demonstrations, riots, began to attack the houses of parliament. In other words, they challenged the established ideas about the role of womanhood and ladylike behavior. The police beat them, arrested them, and even raped them.‘They were challenging basic assumptions about gender roles and attributes, and 'taking one of the most important steps in the history of women' which 'split assunder patriarchal cultural hegemony by interrupting men's discourse with each other' (Marcus, 1987:9)’ (Bryson, 1992:page 79).Feminists raise public opinion and attract the attention of politicians. In 1907, two hundred members of parliament form a committee in defense of women's suffrage. Nevertheless, the law on granting women the right to vote was rejected every year.
The most aggressive feminists were called Militant. Militant refused to cooperate with men in parliamentandset fire to, poured acid at houses of main politicians.Such terrorist behavior might seems controversial.On the one hand, with this tactic the militiamen attracted the attention of the press, facilitated the recruitment of new supporters and increased donations to feminist organizations.On the other hand,because of the aggressive struggle, opponents of women's equality had new arguments, such as that women are unbalanced, extremely emotional, and on this basis, they should be denied the right to participate in political life. However, despite the new arguments of opponents, women have achieved the right that all humans should have. The main goal of the European and American feminist movement, giving women the right to vote, was generally achieved by the second half of the 1930s. In the United States,women can vote from 1920 (ourdocument.gov).Without invasive fight, the adoption of this law could pass much later or even never.Therefore, aggression was a necessary tool in defending women’s rights.
In 1963, Betty Friedan—the writer and feminist—published a bestseller The Feminine Mystique, a book in which she argued the belief that main purpose of women is to marry and bear children. Thousands of women supported her idea. The Second Wave began in the 1960s and continued into the 90s. Feminists fought for right to births control and sexuality, and also for equal rights in all aspects of life. Women were not satisfied with scanty salaries and the fact that vacancies for work were limited by gender. Feminists came forward with radical manifestos during marches, such as‘All men oppressed women…In fighting for our liberation we will always take the side if women against their oppressors.. We are against marriage.. We are exploited as sex objects, breeders, domestic servants, and cheap labor.. We identify in unpaid domestic work the help that allows both private and state capitalism to survive.Shall we be content with equal pay when we already carry the burden of hours of domestic work?’ (Manifesto).Radical feminists dressed pigs in ribbons Miss America, threw off their shoes, and burned bras (Pacific University).
Furthermore, there were supporters of the idea of providing for women not equal and "special rights". They critiqued patriarchy much broader than First Wave. These feminists believed that women should work in a separate team, as this creates a special aura. The position of the adherents of the "feminism of special rights" was based on the conviction that women possess a higher morality than men, which is explained by female nature. A woman has a higher morality because it stemmed from the work that the woman performs "by nature" such as household and motherhood, as well as social work and education. They believed that women are more prone to cooperation and peace, while men tend to be competitive and aggressiveness.Accordingly, if a woman has access to public life, she will bring greater justice in it.In the United States and some European countries, due to the increased popularity of the "cult of true femininity", the idea that women are "potential savior of the nation" has prevailed because women are the keepers of purity, tolerance and traditional values, and therefore they need to provide political rights for the improvement of the social environment.
The Second Wave was more theoretical. "Radical feminism" of the Second Wave was expressed not by the aggressiveness of their reactions—as in First Wave—but by belittling men and their capabilities and strict positions on specific issues, for instance, abortion rights. Nonetheless, the results of the second wave are well tangible.Feminists conqueredreproductive rights and guarantees of social equality regardless of sex.Women began to have the opportunityto hold seats in the Congress andleadershippositions in companies.Most universities have centers and scholarships to study women, gender, and feminism.
In the mid-90’s, feminists began to express a new position that a woman can wear heels and at the same time have a brain.In the fight against sexism, feminists began using abusive words such as a “slut” and a “bitch” to devalue their essence.Gradually the word feminism began to acquire a some negative connotation as it was associated with the humiliation of men.A new trend was aimed not only at women's rights but on equal rights for all, regardless of gender, sexual orientation, class, and ethnicity.Aggression towards men has declined. Perhaps this is due to the successes of the Second Wave.More and more men began to support feminist actions in support of equality.
In the last couple of years, the “sexism” situation has changed again.Since the beginning of his presidential company, Donald Trump has repeatedly expressed humiliating and insulting about women.These led the women to a more active position. In the public and social media, people are more actively discussing the status of women, sexism, assault, and inequality in business and politics.Feasibly, it could be a reason of offensive signs toward men in Women’s March LA, 2017. However, women's aggression can alienate men from supporting women. That why rudeness of Trump should not push us to mimic his ignorant behavior.
Mental development of society leads to acceptance, tolerance, and equality of people regardless of their skin color, gender,or other indicators.Feminists seek this for women. They have achieved a lot but the fight is not over yet and there is much to be done.Women’s oppression is left in the past by means of feminists who, with intelligence, aggression, and courage defended the basic women’s rights.Now we need to go deeper into the problems and conduct a constructive dialogue on the way to solution. These discussions should exclude rudeness and depreciation of the interlocutor, otherwise they will not listen to us. And our interlocutors are men.
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